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    Yep! This is exactly one of the reasons why we wanted to get rid of confirmation signatures.


    Yeah you are right, the 7 day cutoff system should work.

    When a user begins an exit, I think they should not only provide transaction t, but merkle proofs for each of the inputs. Merkle proofs can be provided since you can assume the inputs are not under block withholding constraints. They are necessary to prove the correctness of a transaction.

    For example, without proving inclusion of the inputs, I could create a transaction with input addresses B referencing inputs at block n, even though the actual inputs of block n belong to address A. In a similar fashion, I could also create a transaction giving me 100 ether even though the inputs in reality were worth only 10 eth. Instead of challenging with the correct input information, it is easier to verify the inclusion of the inputs that are being referenced.

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    When a user begins an exit, I think they should not only provide transaction t, but merkle proofs for each of the inputs.

    My current implementation has the user submit all signatures for t upfront. Any other user can then reveal a transaction that created an input to t such that the revealed signature is invalid. It’s a little less gas than revealing the input transactions up front.

    I think it’s also possible to have the user submit a sum merkle tree along with t so we can easily prove that the value of all the inputs is valid, need to double check.

    But yep, we need to prove that t is valid - suggestions for other ways to do this are more than welcome


    even if they’re included in withheld blocks after “out of nowhere” transactions, will be correctly processed as long as they only stem from valid inputs.

    as they only stem from valid inputs.

    I think you need to refine your construction. It is not safe or live as it is written.


    Can you explain what you mean? We define “valid” transactions as coming from available/valid blocks (maybe this definition is what makes it confusing). Then we know that the transaction either definitely spends valid inputs (only spends inputs created before invalid tx/data withholding), or possibly spends invalid inputs (data is withheld).

    Maybe we should refine the definition to “available/valid” and “possibly invalid”:

    Our scheme guarantees that any transaction stemming only from available/valid inputs will be processed before any transaction stemming from any possibly invalid inputs.

    Cool right?;)

    Default Props

    Let’s extend our Button component with an color prop of type string.

    If we wanna define defaultProps we can do it via on our component.

    By doing that we need to change our Props type definition to mark props that are default as optional.

    So something like this ( notice the operator )

    and our Component looks like this:

    While this works for this simple example, there is one gotcha. Because we are in strict mode, optional props are union of type for our .

    Let’s say we would like to do something with that particular prop, TS would throw an error because it doesn’t know, that it is defined by React construct.

    To satisfy TS compiler we can use 3 techniques:

    We can implement our High order function very easily ( thanks to new TS 2.8 conditional predefined mapped types ):

    Now we can use our High order function to define our default props, this will also solve our previous problem:

    Or directly inline ( note that we need to explicitly provide original Button Props type, as TS is not able to infer argument types from function):

    And usage remains the same:

    And yes this works also for Components defined via ( also note, that thanks to structural origin of classes in TS, we don't have to specify explicitly our generic type).

    It looks like this:

    And again usage remains the same:

    Bang operator conditional statements/ternary operator withDefaultProps

    Let’s say you need to build an expandable menu component that shows some children content when user clicks on it. We will implement this behaviour via various React Component Patterns.

    Render Callbacks/Render Propspattern

    The best way to make a component logic reusable is by turning your component children into a function or leveraging prop API — that’s why Render Callbacks are also called Function as Child Components.

    Let’s implement a component with render props functionality:

    Now we need to define our component props ( note that we are using Partial mapped type, as we know that all props are gonna be optional, instead of annotating every prop manually by operator ):

    We wanna support both function as a child and render prop function, so both need to be optional. To makes things , we’re creating type of our render function definition:

    Again we are using the power of typescript and , so we don’t have to repeat ourselves when defining types:

    The rest of the implementation is straightforward, standard pattern:

    Now we can pass a function as children to Toggleable component:

    or we can pass a function to render prop:

    Thanks to Typescript we got also intellisense at our disposal and proper type checking of our render prop arguments:

    If we want to reuse it (for multiple menus or so), we could simply create a new component that uses Toggleable logic:

    Our brand new component is ready to be used within Menu component:

    And it works as expected:

    Component Injection

    To make our component even more flexible, we can introduce Component Injection pattern.

    What is Component Injection pattern? If you’re familiar with React-Router, you are using this pattern when defining route definition via:

    So instead of passing a function via render/children props, we are “injecting” Component via prop. For this to work, we can refactor our inline render prop function to a reusable stateless component:

    With that we can refactor our with render prop to:

    Now with that done, let’s define our new API —  prop.

    We need update our props API.

    Next we need to add new props API to our , so consumer will be allowed to use prop on :

    Now we need to update our method

    Whole implementation of Toogleable component with Render Props, Children as a Function, Component Injection with arbitrary props support:

    Our final component which leverages prop looks like this:

    NOTE though, that we have no type safety within our arbitrary custom prop, because it's defined as indexed object map

    We can now use our for menu rendering as before

    Generic Components

    When we implemented “component injection pattern” we lost strict type safety on arbitrary props handled via . How can we fixes this? You guess it right! We can write our component as a generic Components!

    First we need to make our props generic. We are using default generic parameters so we don’t have to provide it explicitly when we don’t want to ( for render props/children as a function).

    We also need to update our to be generic. Oh wait it already is;). So no changes on this front.

    What needs to be changed though is definition of as it is impossible to get generic type definition from implementation, we need to refactor it to old fashioned way type definition -> implementaion

    Now let’s make our component class generic. Again we are using default props so we don’t have to specify generic arguments when component injection is not used!

    That’s it! That’s it??? Hmm, how can we leverage this generic type within our JSX?

    Bad news, we can’t…

    We need to introduce generic component factory pattern

    Whole implementation of Toogleable component with Render Props, Children as a Function, Component Injection with generic props support:

    Now with factory method, we can create our properly typed generic component

    And everything will work as before, this time with proper type safety for our prop. High five!

    High Order Components

    Because we already created our component with render callback functionality, implementing HOC will be easy peasy. ( That's also one of the great advantages of render callback pattern, we can leverage it for HOC implementation)

    We need to create:

    Now we can create our Toogleable menu item via HOC as well, with correct type safety of props!

    Controlled Components

    We are in the finale! Let’s say we wanna make our highly configurable by controlling it from parent. This is very powerful pattern indeed. Let's do this.

    What I mean by Controlled Component? I wanna controll if content is shown directly for all my components from within component.

    We need to update our implementation of ToggleableMenu components like following:

    Now with those updated we can add state to our and propagate it down to

    L et’s update our one last time for ultimate power and flexibility

    To make our Toggleable controlled component we need to do following:

    1 2:

    3 4:

    Final Toggleable Component with support for all patterns ( Render Props/Children as Function/Component Injection/Generic types/Controllable )

    Final withToggleable HoC via Toggleable

    Just slight update -> we need to propagate prop value within our HoC and update our API


    Implementing proper type safe components with React and Typescript can be tricky. With new functionality added to Typescript 2.8, we have almost everything at our disposal to write type safe components by adhering to common React component patterns.

    In this super long post ( sorry about that!) we learned how to implement components with various patterns in strict type safe way thanks to Typescript.

    Most powerfull pattern overall is indeed Render Props, which allows us to implement other common patterns like Component Injection or HOC without much additional churn.

    All demos can be found at my Github repo for this post.

    Also it is very important to realise, that type safety within templates like demonstrated in this article, is possible only within libraries that use VDOM/JSX

    As always ping me here or on twitter( my handle Caparros Philomena Women US 95 Silver Slingback Sandal gp3oMoeA
    ) if you have any questions, beside that, happy type checking folks! Cheers!

    Like what you read? Give Martin Hochel a round of applause.

    From a quick cheer to a standing ovation, clap to show how much you enjoyed this story.

    Covering civic issues, news, and the secret life of Encinitas

    Saturday, June 23, 2012

    Boy, did we get this one wrong! Andreen was absolutely right about Barth and Shaffer's plan to push for high-density development. They campaigned on preserving "community character" and fooled us. Mike Andreen has really gone of the rails with this one . Andreen uses his New Encinitas Network blog for a long and bizarre rant against Council Member Teresa Barth and candidate Lisa Shaffer, trying to paint them as wanting to push high-density on New Encinitas. In fact, Barth and Shaffer are working to high-density development, and Andreen's buddies Jerome Stocks and Kristin Gaspar had their campaigns heavily funded by developers (and Stocks is directly responsible for Encinitas' huge unfunded pension liability, for which his solution will certainly be lots of high-density development to increase the tax base). Andreen is entitled to his opinion, but why are these Encinitas businesses sponsoring his nonsense? If you're a customer of any of these, you might inquire. Et tu, Shatto?
    Posted by W.C. Varones at
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    I read this after it was first posted. Do the sponsoring businesses even know the vitriol Andreen is spreading? Shades of his disgusting Fire Wire email tree of more than a decade ago! He lives in Oceanside now.I understand why Gaspar Physical Therapy, DCM Properties, and Jerome Stocks Insurance are on the list. The three have sponsored his dirty tricks. Others need to be informed of what he is up to.It's a measure of Andreen's frustration and fear in the coming election that Stocks might be defeated that he sounds like he's slipped into the realm of unreality.

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    Does his group have a non profit status? If so, his political stance is a violation, is it not?

    June 23, 2012 at 9:35 AM

    I am not sure that Wells Fargo Bank knows they are on his list. I suppose it's time to ask the bank manager because even though I don't think they are aware that their name is being used, it looks as though Wells Fargo is supporting MIke Andreen and his opinions.Kathleen2


    Good post about the "rant." I noticed that while Andreen takes personal credit for his "WaveBlog," he provides a personal disclaimer (in the upper right hand margin of his blog) that his opinions do not reflect the views of any organization. However, I feel the different organizations which Andreen represents through his El Camino Real Corridor Chamber of Commerce, should be made aware of his political bloggings and "floggings" so that they can evaluate for themselves his online ravings and his seemingly delusional perspectives . . .

    Bwindi Impenetrable Forest is broken down into 4 regional areas.

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    Bwindi Impenetrable Forest is best known for Gorilla Tracking, that is the reason that most visitors come to this park.

    Bwindi Impenetrable Forest provides an incredible backdrop for this once in a lifetime adventure. There are four trailheads from which one tracks one of the gorilla families for which we have obtained permits for you.

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    for visitors. That means that there are over 100 daily gorilla permits available in Bwindi Impenetrable Forest.

    Be sure to wear the right clothing for the trek and bring the things needed.

    Bwindi Impenetrable Forest is the best Safe, Secure Park in Africa for Gorilla Trekking – plus the added benefit of lower permit prices.

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    Rushaga- More Time with Gorillas:

    It is only in Uganda that you can be with a Mountain Gorilla Family for 4 hours on a Gorilla Habituation Experience along with researchers in Bwindi’s Impenetrable Forest – this amazing experience – to be with a Mountain Gorilla Family as it is being habituated is a one of a kind experience in Africa.

    There are presently two family groups being habituated, meaning that they becoming used to human contact and will not run away from visitors trekking them.

    You can fly into Kigali Rwanda and 4 hours later be in the Rushaga Region of Bwindi Impenetrable Forest. You have the choice of budget, moderate and upmarket lodging and can stay either in Rushaga or scenic Nkuringo area of Bwindi Impenetrable Forest.

    Gorilla Habituation – fewer Participants, more time with the Gentle Giants of the Forest.

    3. A Visit with the First People of the Forest – the Batwa:

    The Batwa People – are pygmies and were the first inhabitants of years, they were hunter-gatherers and lived in the forests of Southwest Uganda and beyond. They left a small ecological footprint on the forest and lived in harmony with nature. Conservationists insisted that they were evicted from their traditional home, the Forest. In those days they had no voice, no representation – the existed as squatters, beggars, accused of being drunkards, marijuana smoking, lazy people.

    Today various organizations have given them a voice, defended their rights as first people, improved their living conditions, medical care, education and more.

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    and the Buniga Forest Walk , near Southern Bwindi, give you a glimpse into the lives and traditions of the Batwa Pygmies. It also restores a bit of their dignity and keeps their cultural practices alive to be passed on to future generations.

    Reach Further.

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